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Information = data with meaning and purpose, “useful” for taking decisions

Good quality information provides us with facts and possibilities, enhances our understanding of the environment and of the consequences of decisions and actions, so that we can achieve our purposes in a sustainable, meaningful way.

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The “formulation of systematic conceptions of data, information, and knowledge is crucial for the development of a systematic conception of Information Science”.

from “Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge”, Chaim Zins [Zin07]

Scholarly articles

Zins, Chaim. Conceptual Approaches for Defining Data, Information, and Knowledge. Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 58(4), pages 479-493, 2007. [Zin07]

Rowley, Jennifer. The wisdom hierarchy: representations of the DIKW hierarchy. Journal of Information Science, 33(2), pages 163–180, 2007. https://doi.org/10.1177/0165551506070706, 2007

Rowley, Jennifer; Hartley, Richard. Organizing Knowledge: An Introduction to Managing Access to Information. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pages 5–6. ISBN 978-0-7546-4431-6, 2006.

Frické M.H. (2018) Data-Information-Knowledge-Wisdom (DIKW) Pyramid, Framework, Continuum. In: Schintler L., McNeely C. (eds) Encyclopedia of Big Data. Springer, Cham. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-32001-4_331-1